Tutorial Photoshop: Efecto Andy Warhol


Aprende a realizar el efecto dibujo para la creación de imágenes similares a las utilizadas por el artista y diseñador Andy Warhol.

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The Argentine Gaucho

According to legend, the first Gauchos were the few settlers who stayed behind when Pedro de Mendoza’s first settlement on the site of Buenos Aires was abandoned in 1541. By the time the Spaniards returned to re-establish the city in 1580, the remnants of the first settlement had become wild, primitive loners, who lived in the saddle, slept rough, and were intimately acquainted with the land on which they roamed. The first written, factual reports of gauchos are from the turn of the seventeenth century, only a few years later, so there may be a seed of truth in the legend, however conditions were no less hard in the early days of the second settlement, and it’s just as likely that within a few years some of the colonists had taken off to forage from the land rather than chance their survival in Buenos Aires itself. In 1620, there were enough of them that the Buenos Aires authorities were discussing them with concern.

At some point, a code of behaviour, akin perhaps to honour among thieves, developed between these vagabond horsemen, and the culture and the character of the gaucho was born. It was during the independence wars though at the turn of the nineteenth century that the gauchos gained a measure of social acceptance and began to play a part in the new Argentine national identity. Shortly after independence had been declared in Buenos Aires, colonies still loyal to the Spanish crown in Peru sent troops to put down what they saw as a treasonous rebellion, and it was only by the ingenious tactic of General Guemes of Salta of persuading local gauchos to form a regiment and fight for him that the loyalists were defeated; the gaucho’s knowledge of the local terrain and guerrilla raids enabled them to outwit the better trained and more experienced soldiers.

Following this acceptance, and as large cattle ranches were established in the interior of the country during the first half of the nineteenth century (which again required the gaucho’s knowledge of local terrain to round up the freely grazing cattle), the gaucho became an admired, romantic figure, both free of the constraints of and useful to society. So admired in fact that when gauchos began to be press-ganged into military service, Argentines felt that an injustice was being done, in abusing and corroding an important part of the national character. This sentiment was best expressed in what has become Argentina’s national epic poem, The Gaucho Martín Fierro by José Hernández, published in 1872. This work also served to crystallise the romantic image and notion of the gaucho in its modern, recognisable form, that which subsequently became famous throughout the world.

Integral to this archetypal image of the gaucho is the hard, wild, lone horseman, who works as a seasonal hired hand on cattle ranches, wears chaps, a wide brimmed hat and a poncho, and is armed with a knife and a boleadora (a device consisting of 3 hard leather balls attached to leather cords that are tied at one end, that can be used like a lasso and hurled at running animals to wrap round their neck to get them to stop). The gaucho spurns society’s conventions, roasts fresh meat over an open fire, and while hospitable to travellers is quick to rise and defend his pride if he is provoked. A throwback and tribute to primitive man, if you like.

Today, gauchos have experienced something of a revival of fortune since their late nineteenth and early twentieth century decline, and not just for the benefit of tourism. Throughout Argentina (and in neighbouring Uruguay and Chile) they can be found working on farms, and if anything they more confident today in their culture and identity than in centuries past. Their work is generally well paid (their knowledge of the land along with their horse skills are still valuable assets), though seasonal, so they typically blow their wages between jobs on gambling, drinking and wanton women in the towns before returning to the saddle.

The gaucho tradition is celebrated by a national holiday, the Dia de tradicion, celebrated on José Hernández’ birthday of 10th November. One town, San Antonio de Areco, celebrates with a competition of horsemanship and gaucho skills. In Salta, on Guemes Day in June thousands of gauchos descend on the city from the surrounding countryside to revel through the night before parading through the city in their maroon ponchos.

Aside from The Gaucho Martín Fierro, there are numerous representations and references to gauchos in the arts, a recent example being the film Aballay, a man without fear by Fernando Spiner, which tells the story of a gaucho who kills someone and then spends the rest of his life on the run, and which has been selected to represent Argentina in the competition for the 2012 Best Foreign Film Oscar.

Source by Hugo Lesser

Feature Stories With Heart

Feature stories have heart. Feature stories have warmth. Most of all, feature stories force a writer/reporter to evaluate the human side of a community – beyond the facts, beyond the opinions – to find the spirit of the story.

I have always favored feature stories (or soft news) as a writer because it gives me the chance to get to know people on a higher level than straight news reporting (hard news) does. Beyond that, it also forces me to work as a reporter with feelings – yes, some reporters have actual feelings.

For the past few weeks, I’ve evaluated a variety of types of college feature stories in preparation for a workshop I’m presenting at the Associated Collegiate Press and College Media Advisers National College Media Convention. After sifting through stacks and stacks of archives of papers, I’ve come to the conclusion that college newspapers are much more active to seek out the feature elements than mainstream, professional newspapers.

My students (and former students) from The Montage, have compiled heartwarming stories of life and death, fun and frolics, and service and sacrifice. Here are a few examples:

“A Day in the Life of Mary Davis:” As a regular series, my students write personality profiles, covering students, faculty, staff, locals, etc. This particular story highlights an 86-year old student still eager to learn.

“Turning Lead into Gold:” This profile provides an in-depth look at a faculty member’s passions.

“Inauguration Road:” Following a road trip to the White House for Barack Obama’s inauguration, two of my students compiled a piece about a 1st person account of the journey itself.

“What’s Brewing in St. Louis:” Beer is a priority for many college students. Recognizing this, my students compiled an in-depth centerspread on St. Louis’ beer culture, including a list of “things” to do with beer.

“The Vertical Expression of a Horizontal Desire:” Fun and frolics come in all shapes and sizes as detailed in this feature about the art of tango music.

This list of stories (found at http://www.meramecmontage.com) includes a variety of subjects, topics, and angles. Primarily, though, these stories offer readers something “different,” something soft – a much-needed break from the heart-wrenching news of abductions, murders, and swine flu statistics. Even more so, they offer writers (whether student or professional) a chance to explore more than just the facts but rather the fun-loving spirit of life.

I could spend all day listing compelling, heart-warming and entertaining features that have been written by both students and professionals, but I’d rather open my eyes and seek the next big story that could possibly touch someone else’s life and in return, touch mine.

Source by Shannon Philpott

The Art and the Ethics of Corporate Gifting

Given the increased competition and the constant jostle for face time with key decision makers, there are many challenges that marketing and sales teams face on a day to day basis but the two that stand out are relationship building and being top of mind. While interpersonal skills and the content play an important role in fostering the former, for the latter Corporate Gifting has become one of the key tools in the last decade or so. And here too it’s a race to be innovative and different while being relevant. Adding to the confusion is the fact that there is a thin line dividing what constitutes a gift and what can be deemed a bribe!

If you were to leaf through the code of conduct which every employee working in the new age corporation has to sign, you will find a definitive paragraph on the do’s & don’ts of the Corporate Gifting policy. In some of the more ethically inclined companies there is a blanket ban on receiving and giving gifts, but most others do give some leeway within defined parameters. Some large multi-national companies work on pre-defined budgets based on organisational hierarchy while others have a one-budget-for-all policy. But such documents exist only in professionally structured and run organisations. In many small and medium companies the outcome of the debate on to gift v/s bribe completely rests on the owner/managements ethical orientation.

Having crossed the hurdle of the moral/ethical dilemma one is confronted with the choice and the price of the gift. Judging by the Google results on ‘corporate gifts’ one can easily assume that the pen and the key-chain sets and their likes are still the most sought after gifts. But for a discerning few, corporate silver gifts seem to be an emerging trend. From table tops to personal gifts like pens and key-chains to divinity gifts there are many choices available. Silver while being a precious metal, also has a certain elegance and finesse attached to it. Corporate silver gifts like visiting card holders, pen stands, photo frames, book marks etc. are most commonly gifted items. Divinity gifts, religious insignias, traditional and designer Diya’s for Diwali are increasingly becoming a part of the list of products to choose from for corporate silver gifts.

In India Diwali, like Christmas in the west, has become the big event for corporate gifting. The festival, in the last decade or so, has suddenly exploded as the gifting event of the year and so has the choice of corporate silver gifts because of the auspicious nature of the occasion and the relevance of silver therein. So don’t be surprised when you receive a silver gift this Diwali, though you may want to flip through that code of conduct that you never read, just to be on the safe side! Now the growing trend in this segment of jewellery is to designing and producing hallmarked silver products that have a distinct identity, which will be appreciated and valued by discerning consumers across the world.

Source by Akash K Sharma

What is a Monocultural Society?

Do you live in a mono-cultural or multi-cultural society?. Often we find it difficult to define. What is a mono- cultural society?

Most experts agree that the essential traits of a mono-cultural society are a common heritage, belief structure, language and usually a mono-racial identity. Since we live in a more globalized World, many of our societies are essentially multi-cultural. But still many of today’s societies still share the common traits of a mono-cultural society.

What are these common traits?

1. A common heritage

The historical heritage of the society could be based on a perception that the nations, food, language, attitudes, racial features and religious beliefs are an essential element to the nations identity.

2. A shared belief structure

The majority of the citizens of a country have a shared belief structure, based on the nation’s heritage. These beliefs form the national identity, and ‘psyche,’ which create to many a stronger bonded society, but to detractors a nation which loses out on the benefits of a multi-cultural ethnic society.

3. An inward looking ‘psyche’

To many, mono-cultural societies tend to look inwards, rather than outwards, and this can show in the nation’s culture. Television programs and news tends to be locally centered, and the cultures identity heavily promoted. A degree of ignorance of the outside World is often a product of looking inwards.

4. A suspicion of “foreigners”

The ‘psyche” of a mono-cultural society often can be suspicious towards “foreigners,” and unacceptable of their beliefs. This could lead to discouraging multi-cultural partnerships, to a ‘ghetto’ mentality of separating cultures through the areas they can live.

5. Common religious values

Whilst in some societies religion is seen as being less important, other cultures see it as part of their national or ethnic identity. A strong mono-cultural official religion often is a strong trait of a this type of society..

6. Tribalism

Citizens of strong multi-cultural societies tend to be more tribal when they live outside their own culture. Multi- cultural marriages are unacceptable, the neighbors, the food and even the workplace tends to be ‘tribal.” – the influence of the new society lessened by this strong cultural bond, between others who share it.

7. Purchasing Goods

Mono- cultural societies tend to support their own products, rather than purchase products from other nations. They tend to be proud of their industries, and economic achievements- encouraging buying nationally produced products over others. This is beneficial in a recession, but in an expanding economy can hinder the choice consumers have.

Mono-cultural societies tend to feel safer, as long as you are identified as “one of the group,” but also conservative when it comes to accepting change. Whilst threatened, these societies tend to bond together faster, but also can be guilty of the worse types of ethnic abuse.

Historic examples could be the Armenian holocaust by Turkey, or the past bloodshed in the Balkans, and Rwanda- Events that generally do not occur in more modern multi-ethnic societies, which accept the differences in ideas, and beliefs.

Recessions often create a more mono-cultural outlook in societies, were suddenly even in multi-cultural societies fault lines can appear- often in the guise of competition for jobs and economic rights. However despite economic hardship, without the color, music and openness of a multi-cultural society- we would live in a very dull and limited World.

Source by Mark W. Medley