Impact Of Technology In Banking

In the world of banking and finance nothing stands still. The biggest change of all is in the, scope of the business of banking. Banking in its traditional from is concerned with the acceptance of deposits from the customers, the lending of surplus of deposited money to suitable customers who wish to borrow and transmission of funds. Apart from traditional business, banks now a days provide a wide range of services to satisfy the financial and non financial needs of all types of customers from the smallest account holder to the largest company and in some cases of non customers. The range of services offered differs from bank to bank depending mainly on the type and size of the bank.


As a central bank in a developing country, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has adopted development of the banking and financial market as one of its prime objectives. “Institutional development” was the hallmark of this approach from 1950s to 1970s. In the 1980s, the Reserve Bank focused on “improvements in the productivity” of the banking sector. Being convinced that technology is the key for improving in productivity, the Reserve Bank took several initiatives to popularize usage of technology by banks in India.

Periodically, almost once in five years since the early 1980s, the Reserve Bank appointed committees and working Groups to deliberate on and recommend the appropriate use of technology by banks give the circumstances and the need. These committees are as follows:

-Rangarajan committee -1 in early 1980s.

-Rangarajan committee -11 in late 1980s.

-Saraf working group in early 1990s.

-Vasudevan working group in late 1990s.

-Barman working group in early 2000s.

Based on the recommendations of these committees and working groups, the Reserve Bank issued suitable guidelines for the banks. In the 1980s, usage of technology for the back office operations of the banks predominated the scene. It was in the form of accounting of transactions and collection of MIS. In the inter-bank payment systems, it was in the form of clearing and settlement using the MICR technology.

Two momentous decisions of the Reserve Bank in the 1990s changed the scenario for ever there are:

a) The prescription of compulsory usage of technology in full measure by the new private sector banks as a precondition of the license and

b) The establishment of an exclusive research institute for banking technology institute for development and Research in Banking Technology.

As the new private sector banks came on the scene as technology-savvy banks and offered several innovative products at the front office for the customers based on technology, the demonstration effect caught on the reset of the banks. Multi channel offerings like machine based (ATMs and pc-Banking), card based (credit/Debit/Smart cards), Communication based (Tele-Banking and Internet Banking) ushered in Anytime and Anywhere Banking by the banks in India. The IDRBT has been instrumental in establishing a safe and secure, state of the art communication backbone in the from of the Indian Financial NETwork (INFINET) as a closed user group exclusively for the banking and financial sector in India.


Liberalization brought several changes to Indian service industry. Probably Indian banking industry learnt a tremendous lesson. Pre-liberalization, all we did at a bank was deposit and withdraw money. Service standards were pathetic, but all we could do was grin and bear it. Post-liberalization, the tables have turned. It’s a consumer oriented market there.

Technology is revolutionizing every field of human endeavor and activity. One of them is introduction of information technology into capital market. The internet banking is changing the banking industry and is having the major effects on banking relationship. Web is more important for retail financial services than for many other industries.

Retail banking in India is maturing with time, several products, which further could be customized. Most happening sector is housing loan, which is witnessing a cut-throat competition. The home loans are very popular as they help you to realize your most cherished dream. Interest rates are coming down and market has seen some innovative products as well. Other retail banking products are personal loan, education loan and vehicles loan. Almost every bank and financial institution is offering these products, but it is essential to understand the different aspects of these loan products, which are not mentioned in their colored advertisements.


Plastic money was a delicious gift to Indian market. Giving respite from carrying too much cash. Now several new features added to plastic money to make it more attractive. It works on formula purchase now repay later. There are different facts of plastic money credit card is synonyms of all.

Credit card is a financial instrument, which can be used more than once to borrow money or buy products and services on credit. Banks, retail stores and other businesses generally issue these. On the basis of their credit limit, they are of different kinds like classic, gold or silver.

Charged cards-these too carry almost same features as credit cards. The fundamental difference is you can not defer payments charged generally have higher credit limits or some times no credit limits.

Debit cards-this card is may be characterized as accountholder’s mobile ATM, for this you have to have account with any bank offering credit card.

Over the years, the banking sector in India has seen a no. of changes. Most of the banks have begun to take an innovative approach towards banking with the objective of creating more value for customers and consequently, the banks. Some of the significant changes in the banking sector are discussed below.


Taking advantages of the booming market for mobile phones and cellular services, several banks have introduced mobile banking which allows customers to perform banking transactions using their mobile phones. For instances HDFC has introduced SMS services. Mobile banking has been especially targeted at people who travel frequently and to keep track of their banking transaction.


One of the innovative scheme to be launched in rural banking was the KISAN CREDIT CARD (KCC) SCHMME started in fiscal 1998-1999 by NABARD. KCC mode it easier for framers to purchase important agricultural inputs. In addition to regular agricultural loans, banks to offer several other products geared to the needs of the rural people.

Private sector Banks also realized the potential in rural market. In the early 2000’s ICICI bank began setting up internet kiosks in rural Tamilnadu along with ATM machines.


With a substantial number of Indians having relatives abroad, banks have begun to offer service that allows expatriate Indians to send money more conveniently to relatives India which is one of the major improvements in money transfer.


E-Banking is becoming increasingly popular among retail banking customers. E-Banking helps in cutting costs by providing cheaper and faster ways of delivering products to customers. It also helps the customer to choose the time, place and method by which he wants to use the services and gives effect to multichannel delivery of service by the bank. This E-Banking is driven by twin engine of “customer-pull and Bank-push”.


Technology has been one of the most important factors for the development of mankind. Information and communication technology is the major advent in the field of technology which is used for access, process, storage and dissemination of information electronically. Banking industry is fast growing with the use of technology in the from of ATMs, on-line banking, Telephone banking, Mobile banking etc., plastic card is one of the banking products that cater to the needs of retail segment has seen its number grow in geometric progression in recent years. This growth has been strongly supported by the development of in the field of technology, without which this could not have been possible of course it will change our lifestyle in coming years.

Stronger Ejaculation – How To Increase Distance And Power

Having a stronger ejaculation is possible as men can train muscles to produce a more powerful ejaculation.

In fact, it is possible that you have a healthy libido and yet just a weak projection of sperm that only trickles out.

Obviously, many men want to have thicker ejaculation loads and with a more powerful jet.

Being able to shoot further is seen to be manly and virile.

Stronger ejaculation is possible

Don’t believe all the hype about how you can get an amazingly strong ejaculation load of semen by taking some magic pills.

Some people will tell you to pop some supplements and suddenly you’ll be able to shoot semen for a distance of 2 metres.

This is complete rubbish of course! Don’t believe a word of it.

Pills on their own, natural or chemical, can’t improve your projection.

They can increase the amount of semen and they can help get your jet that you produce when you ejaculate stronger.

But if you want tips on stronger ejaculation then you’ll need to master other techniques too.

Herbal Libido Solutions

Like I say, supplements on their own don’t improve your shooting power.

So make sure you combine these with the other natural techniques I recommend you.

If you have low libido and low testosterone levels, you’ll be looking for the fastest way to improve your sex drive.

Whilst age, diet, exercise, blood circulation and general health all have an influence on libido, herbal libido supplements can get you back on track much faster.

They can also lead to stronger ejaculation and increase your ejaculation distance and volume when combined with other techniques.

If you take supplements and follow my tips on improving semen projection, then you should be able to shoot further.

You’ll still need to stay in shape, eat the right foods and master other techniques I recommend though.

Perform Kegel exercises

If you go to see your doctor about a low sex drive there’s very little chance you’ll get recommended this technique.

Performing Kegel exercises strengthens the whole muscle group of the pelvic floor, which strengthens the urinary sphincter.

The urinary sphincter is what controls urinating and ejaculation.

A strong and tight urinary sphincter means your semen should jet out much further as it’s squeezing through a tight hole.

It’s a simple as that!

A loose urinary sphincter only means you’ll get weak ejaculation. It makes sense doesn’t it?

Ejaculation distance is muscular

First of all, increase your semen load and your libido by taking natural erection supplements. Then practice Kegel exercises for a month to see results.

It’s not only when trying to conceive that men want to improve ejaculation distance and power either. Many men, some who are with a new lover, some who have noticed their ejaculation jet is weak and others who act in skin films all want to improve distance.

Having a stronger ejaculation is considered to be virile.

How to perform Kegel exercises

The great thing about Kegel exercises is that doing them develops greater ejaculation control and can even lead to harder erections.

In addition to this, you can do these exercises when you’re sitting down at your desk or watching TV.

You need to flex your anus and contract it regularly. It doesn’t sound pleasant, but when you do it you’ll feel your muscles in your penile area flexing too.

Flexing these muscles is the same action that you take when you want to stop yourself from urinating in mid flow.

Flex your pelvic floor muscles 100 times per day and within 1-4 weeks (depending on your condition and libido) you’ll see results.

You should be able to shoot semen further than before.

Remedies for ‘Pilling’ In Handcrafted Feltmaking

Felt is an environmentally responsible product to make because it bypasses the spinning and weaving processes of traditional fabrics processes, so felt costs less to produce, both in financial savings, as well as resource savings. Therefore, felt has a marketing potential for the clothing industry. Felt can be commercially made or handcrafted. Generally, commercial felt is rough and hard against the skin, thus not lending itself to commercial clothing uses. Additionally, many handcrafted felt items for sale in the marketplace are non-clothing items. Part of the reason for this phenomenon is that handcrafted felt can ‘pill’ significantly, thus detracting from the clothes’ overall artistic statement. This article addresses and resolves this problem which can in turn free fibre artists to address this wider artform. If pilling of handcrafted felt can be addressed and resolved, so that pilling does not occur, then fibre artists can feel more confidence when turning their skills to producing felt clothing. This article gives several options to address and resolve pilling in woollen clothing.

Many wool products ‘pill’. In fact, most tags that accompany woollen products addresses this very issue. Most tagging says ‘pill resistant’; few say ‘does not pill’. Labels of woollen products that do not address pilling at all leaves the consumer to wonder whether the product pills or not. It is a valid issue when dealing with woollen products. The issue becomes more intense when applied to clothing. Woollen clothing needs to have strategies in place that resists pilling.

Pilling is all about fibres of unequal weight not having enough support to stay where they were originally put Fibres lift and knot together and lie in a different position to the direction that were initially lying in when friction is present. If the fibres can be given equal strength, then the fibres can sit together and use each other to stay where they are put. One way of achieving this, is to rinse the fabric in a cornstarch rinse. Cornstarch – or cornflour – is a product used in cooking to thicken food. It is also used as starch for clothing. Before modern spraycans of starch came about, our mothers used to make up a mixture of cornflour and water, put it in a spray bottle, and spray the mixture onto clothing as they ironed clothing. One result of this process was that cottons felt more rigid to the touch.

When this same process is applied to woollen felt, the result is not the rigid touch of the cotton result, the result for wool is that the fabric seems smoother. This smooth feeling is not in opposition to the softness of handcrafted felt. The smoothness and softness are complimentary and the result is a fabric that is much more durable than non treated fabric. The ultimate test is that the fabric does not pill.

Another way to reduce pilling on woollen clothes is to coat the fibres with something else which acts as a barrier to pilling. This method isn’t as effective, but works to some extent. One barrier which was tried and worked well was hairspray. Hairspray is like a very thin paint that dries and hardens to a surface and has the effect of keeping the surface in place. If handcrafted felt, or other woollen fabrics that pill are sprayed with hairspray comparatively heavily, left to dry for a few minutes, then sprayed again and left to dry, there comes to be a barrier on the fibres that resists pilling.

If felt or other woollen fabric that pills is treated in both these ways before the cloth is worn and friction is applied to the cloth, then pilling is eliminated. This frees up textile artists who would otherwise use fabrics that pill in their art. These kinds of treatments are relatively easy and cheap to implement by consumers. It is hoped that this kind of innovation in handcrafted felt will see more handcrafted felt clothing in the marketplace. Handcrafted felt is a beautiful medium for wearable art, and resolving ongoing problems with maintaining the art’s original beauty is possible.

Bitcoin Brokers – Understand the Benefits of CryptoCurrency Trading

Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency, which can be spent, saved, or invested, and it can be stolen too. Trading with Bitcoins was considered to be risky, but the current trends show that it has become a big hit the binary options sector. This decentralized currency is not regulated by any Government, or by any central authority.

What determines the price of Bitcoins?

Bitcoin’s price is determined according to the supply and demand ratio. Price increases when the demand increases, the rates plummet downwards when the demand falls. Bitcoins in circulation are limited, and new ones are created at a very slow rate. Since it does not have enough cash reserve to move the market price, its price can be extremely volatile.

Bitcoin trading is popular because of –

  • Low inflation risk – Inflation is the biggest issue for traders, because all the currencies lose some of their purchasing power when the reserve banks keep printing more currency. With Bitcoin minting system being limited to just 21 million Bitcoins, it hardly gets impacted with inflation.
  • Low collapse risk – Currencies fluctuations depend on government trade policies, which at times cause hyperinflation, and even lead to the collapse of currency. Bitcoin is a virtual universal currency, which is not regulated by any government.
  • Simple, safe and cheap – The Bitcoin payments take place between peer-to-peer without any intermediary, which is why it is simple and cheap.
  • Easy to carry – Bitcoins worth million dollars can be carried in your pocket, in a memory stick. This cannot be done with gold or cash.
  • Untraceable – Issuance of Bitcoin is not regulated by any government, so the risk of seizure is nil.

Binary options Bitcoin trading platform

Binary options brokers are getting familiar with popularity of these Bitcoins, and its constant fluctuating values. Therefore they are using this opportunity to offer traders with the latest volatile crypto-currency as an additional payment method. Bitcoin brokers providing crypto-currency as trading option include –

  • One touch option – Bitcoin trading can be done with AnyOption or one-touch option. For example the current popular currency pair is BTC/USD.
  • SetOption – The latest option available for asset trading is BITCOIN/USD.

Bitcoin brokers provide a simple trading online platform. All you have to do is visit their website, enter your details, and create an account. You can start with demo account to understand the market action.

The trading screen is simple.

  • Pick the price direction (UP/DOWN)
  • Select the timeframe

Is Bitcoin trading secure?

Bitcoin network is possibly the world’s vast spread computing project. The most common weakness here is the user errors. Bitcoin wallet files can get lost, stolen, or deleted accidentally just like any other files in the digital form.

However, users can use sound security strategies to protect their cash. Alternatively, you could choose the service providers who offer high-level security, as well as insurance against loss or theft.

How To Increase My Height – The Science Behind Micro Fractures and Growing Taller

Many of you want to know how to grow taller quickly and one of the many things that you may see pop up is the term micro fractures. These are actually important when it comes down to increasing your height and if you didn’t understand them before then you will finally understand how micro fractures can help you answer the question of “how to increase my height” because knowing is half the battle right?

What Are Micro Fractures?

Micro fractures are small fractures which are made in the bone (when it comes to growing taller it is normally the shin bone). These fractures are caused by a lot of stress which the bone undergoes from exercises, carrying a heavy load constantly or just long walks around that you aren’t used to.

These can also happen to muscle (slight tears) when they too are over worked or stretched out as well.

Are They Dangerous?

They aren’t dangerous at all, micro fractures are a warning sign to you that you are over working your body, for example in running this term is known as shins splints, stress caused by running faster or for a longer distance than your body is used to. Normally you will be able to feel these if you don’t give your body a rest.

If you keep pushing and don’t rest then you will end up injuring yourself more than needed which is why rest and also diet is vital so that your body can recover and heal.

The Healing Process

The way micro fractures can benefit us is that when you don’t over train them and rest them properly whilst eating properly your body will repair them and will make them not only stronger but also longer and you can tell how this is beneficial when looking at how to increase your height.

How To Apply With Growing Taller

When it comes down to growing taller what you will want to do is go through specific exercises which are going to creating micro fractures in your shins and stretch out the thighs as well.

The main exercises which are used are sprinting and cycling but there are many others that you can use suck as kicking a punch bag and jump rope. As you can see, these all cause stress on the shin and will create all the micro fractures needed.

IMPORTANT – Rest and Diet

As mentioned before one of the things you need to remember is that your body is going to need both rest and the correct diet so that it can properly recover itself so that it becomes a lot stronger when needed to.

You should have rest days where the most strenuous activity you do is stretching out these areas of your body and you will want to make sure that you fuel your body with proteins and calcium as they are great nutrients when it comes down to strengthening bones and reducing recovery time and will help you grow taller quickly as well.

Indian Music Vs Western Music

The Indian music characteristics are evident when you compare it with Western music. In both the systems you will find some essential differences: the Indian music is based on melody or single notes played in a given order, while the Western music is based on harmony: a group of notes known as chords played together.

Dr. Rabindranath Tagore who was well familiar with both the systems, explained the difference as follows: “The world by daylight stands for Western music which is a flowing concourse of vast harmony, composed of concord and discord and many disconnected fragments. And the night world stands for Indian music: one pure, deep and tender raga. Both, touches our heart, and yet both are contradictory in spirit. But this is natural. Nature, at the very root is divided into two, day and night, unity and variety, finite and infinite.

Indian men live in the realm of night; we are inspired by the sense of the One and Infinite. Indian music draws away the listener beyond the boundaries of daily joys and sorrows and takes us to the solitary space of renunciation which exists at the root of the universe, while Western music leads us to dance through a limitless rise and fall of human joy and grief.

” Indian classical music basically stirs our spiritual sense and discipline – a longing for realization of the self salvation. Singing is a worshipping act and not an intellectual exhibition of mastery on the technique of a raga. In Western culture, singing is a formal and secular exercise, and does not involve piety or devotion as compared to Indian music

The teacher-student (Guru-Shishya) tradition in Indian music is responsible for the deep dedication and attachment of the student to the teacher. In the West, a music teacher is taken as a hired person who teaches lessons and there is no deep attachment between the teacher and student.

Like Western music, Indian music too is based on melody and rhythm, but it has no foundation of harmony which is so significant in Western music. Indian music is “modal” – based on the relationship between the permanent individual notes known as tonic, with the successive notes. This is the reason why Tanpura (drone) is played in the background of Indian music which reminds one of the tonic notes.

The Indian classical music system is horizontal; one note follows the other, while the Western music is vertical; many notes played at a time. Yehudi Menuhin, the noted musician, highlights the differentiates both systems by describing Indian music as: “for appreciating Indian music one has to adopt totally a different set of values… one must orientate oneself and at least for the concerned period, forget the passing of time and just sink into a kind of thematic, almost hypnotic trance. The rhythmic and melodic features of Indian music that are repetitive, acquires an extraordinary charm and fascination… despite the domination of this hypnotic mood’s domination, which is an Indian music characteristic, actively frees the mind.”

The place of “composition” in these two systems is notably different. In Western music, the music is first composed by the composer and arranges it in notation: then the musicians play this composition under the guidance of a music conductor. Here improvisation hardly takes place, and the performance value lies in the uniformity and the pre-determined conduct of tone and music speed (tempo). In Indian music, while the melody grammar and rhythm is fixed, the ingenuity and skill of the musician lies in his creativity and improvisation, especially in mood evocation and rasa of a particular raga.

In this context, an international musicologist has written: “In the West, solid blocks of music are constructed. After carving out like building stones, the seven degrees of diatonic scale, lined up and placed on top of each other with cleverly worked out harmony and counterpoint. In this way fantastic edifices in sound are erected.

In Indian classical music, no one can think of dividing sound into blocks; instead it is refined into a wire-thin thread. The sound is stretched out to refine it to an extreme point of delicacy… No standard materials, no building of three or five floors, but just like silk thread which unfold and rises and falls and evokes a world of sensations and feelings.”

In music of India, melody and rhythm offer a variety of subtleties, which is not possible in Western music. Indian notes are divided into units called shruties (22 microtones), whereas Western music consist of 12 semitones. The microtones are more subtle than semitones. These microtones adorned with gracetones (gamakas) create a magical effect.

Western music has the capacity of producing many feelings and moods. While Indian music, has the capacity to produce a principal emotion or a mood in a raga. An Indian musician improvises with his own creative genius within a raga’s framework, but in Western classical music, except in jazz, such an improvisation is inconceivable. Moreover, the percussion in Indian music emphasizes its rhythm. It is only through keeping one’s mind and ears open that one is able to appreciate the melodies and sequences different from one’s own. This applies to Indian audiences attending Western music performances, and to Western audiences attending music of India concerts. Just remember that the both music systems are complementary, like two halves of classical music.

Venetian Mask History, the Moretta Mask

The Moretta mask is one of the most traditional designs of Venetian masks. Originating in France it was quickly taken up by the fashion conscious Venetian women who loved the way the mask accentuated the soft feminine lines of the female face. Its popularity was short lived as by 1760 it had disappeared.

The Moretta mask was oval in shape with no mouth opening, just eye holes.Traditionally the mask was worn with a veil so giving total anonymity to its wearer. Originally made of black velvet the features are expressionless. It was designed without ties to secure it in place relying Instead on a button a button sewn on the inside of the mask which was clamped in the mouth of the wearer, so keeping the mask in place and rendering the wearer mute. This is why the Moretta mask is also called the Servetta Muta meaning mute maid servant.

The lack of verbal communication this mask imposed meant that Venetian women had to use their body language to communicate. It encouraged coquettish behavior, the tilt of the head,the fluttering of eye lashes, the touch of a hand all became an intricate part of flirtation.Its expressionless face meant that the female wearer had to use her body to communicate, much as a mime artist would today. When worn, the Moretta mask accentuated all the attributes that Venetians considered to be the height of desirability and femininity. 

The moretta mask was worn to gambling houses, for affairs and when visiting convents where vows of silence were observed.

Thankfully todays Moretta masks are designed with ribbon ties to secure it. The button has been left in an era where women’s views were seen as unimportant and where they were judged on their physical attributes alone. They can be crafted from leather, cloth or paper mache. Most are still blank in either black or white as tradition dictates. If you wish for one that is a little more decorative there are designs that have been embelished with gilded macrame and crystals. Although not historically correct these do look superb when worn and also make lovely wall decoration. The leather Moretta masks are probably the most comfortable, allowing the skin to breath and molding to the shape of the wearers face.

Although simple in its design and somewhat inconvenient to wear, this mask still holds a fascination for us today. Its expressionless façade imbibes its wearer with an ethereal look which captivates our attention wherever it may be worn.

Who is Willie Lynch?

I have given my students an assignment about who Willie Lynch is and what he had done to the society to gain popularity. And I thought to make a research myself.

William (Willie) Lynch, a British slave owner in the West Indies, and came to United States to advise American slave owners how to keep their slaves restrained, according to the essay in Brother Man: The Odyssey of Black Men in America- an Anthology. Lynching or Lynch Law is actually attributed to him. Lynching initially referred to the hanging of the black man. The William Lynch Speech or letter is from an unknown origin which attracted widespread attention when it was scattered on the internet by 1990s. It was said to be addressed to an audience on the bank of the James River in Virginia in 1712 regarding the control of slaves in the colony. William Lynch was the speaker was summoned to Virginia in 1712, due to a few slave revolts in the area prior to his visit, and his dubious reputation of being an authoritative and strict slave owner. Believers in the substantiality of the William Lynch Speech called it mental slavery.

Hatred among the slaves was a deep division in cognizance to skin color of the slaves; this was the cause of the Lynch’s alleged method. Light-skinned blacks were priced better according to the conditions of slavery given to this doctrine. They were being allowed to do jobs that need power over the other slaves, and were usually assigned in the home of the slave master. While the dark-skinned slaves are bounded to the fields, performing back-breaking labors, and unlike the light-skinned, they cannot enjoy the luxury that the lighter-skinned slaves get. The executions of Lynch’s divide and conquer method of control caused discontent among the slaves. The division between the house and the field slaves is historically erroneous, since slaves that are employed in plantation households were a subset of non-predial slaves, including craftsman such as the carpenters and masons, and were they are under a white supervision than those in the field.

Haitian Revolution led by a non-predial slave, Toussaint L’Ouverture, was on of the most successful slave revolts in history. Louis Farrakhan quotes Willie Lynch’s alleged scheme posed as an impediment to the unity among the African Americans. The Willie Lynch Doctrine, a document that was distributed to the plantations owners and Politicians in the United States advocates them how to convert a man into a slave. This served as a foundation for the current self-destructive life lived by young men today. Causing your own fate and showing your children to do the same. False realities that you grab hold to and base your whole life is a never ending cycle. The doctrine used principles like brainwashing and mind control. The slave owners were actually instructed to use public persecution and indignity to create fear in the black society and demolish the male image in the mind of the black woman.

They were subjected to such persecution like being dragged by the horse with their legs tied, and then light him on fire, and being pulled into parts by a horse in front of his woman. Like today, the black community is still dragged in the same way that the Lynch’s doctrine used to be, it shows how racism still exists. That’s why black woman raises her sons to be physically strong and their daughters’ mentally prepared. So as the time come they could defend themselves as the revolts had shown. For example, there are tendencies of authorities to treat minority suspects’ summarily, bias in both conviction and sentencing. This also shows in the media’s demonization of young black men and the conception of black criminality as it is discernable in cases of racial profiling are all faint messages that is very hard to see today. Like the African-American history, this will have not only an unjust but an everlasting detrimental consequence to the society.

A truly difficult time for everyone and it saddens me to think of what happened during their time.

Matthew Arnold’s Concept of ‘Sweetness and Light’

Matthew Arnold is a well- known figure of Victorian Age. This era is very glorious in the history of England because of It’s an exemplary progress in all branches of life. This age is very popular by its material prosperity, political awakening, democratic reforms, industrial and mechanical progress, scientific development, social unrest etc. He remained pessimist in the age due to a conflict between religion and science. He wrote a book ‘Culture & Anarchy’ with a view to reviving the values which were like honey in ancient Greek. He checks the values of his own time by the light of that culture. His work ‘Culture & Anarchy’ is a collection of a few separate essays; they show his fighting and struggle against material affluence.

Here, we analyze his concept about ‘Sweetness &Light’. In this treatise, his central focus and argument is on curiosity. It is defined as a liberal and intelligent eagerness about the things of mind or mental activities. According to him, the natal place of curiosity is a desire. It is desires that make some body pursue. The work of desire is to see the things as they are. If it is pursued by an intelligent person with an impartial understanding of mind, it becomes praise worthy. It bears a genuine scientific passion that is the right kind of curiosity. Such curiosity leads us to real culture. So, beyond the man of culture is curiosity.

Matthew Arnold views about a social aspect of culture. It comes out from the love of neighbor. In other words, it can be said that this aspect of culture gets birth from the desire for removing human errors and diminishing human misery. It is a person of culture who works in the society for its betterment. Such desire sees the things as they are, and the man of culture works impartially with eagerness. So, it gives birth to sweetness and light. He calls it a real culture that inspires a person to lean the world better and happier than he found it. Indeed, it occupies a genuine scientific passion and a balance and instruction of mind to fight against the diseased inclination of mind.

The author goes to the origin of culture that lies in the love of perfection. In other words, it can be called that culture is a study of perfection. In it two dominant desires work in harmony__the scientific passion for pure knowledge and moral and social passion for doing well. The man of culture should have the pursuit of pure knowledge with impartial desire or passion and prevail it in society for diminishing human miseries. Such miseries can be diminished by prevailing sweetness and light that is the job of a man of culture or a man of pursuing perfection. Such job is easy for a man of culture.

Culture is inclined to real reason and the will of God to prevail. It consists of the study and the pursuit of perfection. The direct inspiration for man to desire for perfection comes from religion. Arnold calls religion’ the voice of the deepest of human experience’. All the voices of human experience are available in art, science, poetry, philosophy and history which a man of true culture listens with a distinguished attention. All the above fields make man perfect internally, or its aim is total human perfection. The out ward expression of culture is shown in the general sweet expansion of thoughts and feelings, rich in dignity, wealth and happiness of human nature. The culture brings internal as well as external perfection of human. It quits all partialities and errors of man. Partialities and errors make anarchy in society.

Arnold finds sincere and genuine connection between culture and the idea of sweetness and light. His ideal man of culture is a Greek man called Euphuasis. Arnold borrowed the phrase ‘sweetness and light’ from Swift. The character of a man of culture is moulded by religion and poetry. The aim of religion is to make man perfect ethically, where as the poetry possesses the idea of beauty and of human nature perfect on all its sides. Culture has the power to prevail peace and satisfaction by killing our bestiality and drawing nearer to the world of spirituality with perfection. Indeed, religion fails to lead us to such perfection. He describes about religious organizations of his time in England that they seem to have failed morally. He submits example of Puritanism that is based on the impulse of man towards moral development and self -conquest. This perfection leads to the idea or impulse of narrowness and insufficiency. He jumps to such conclusion by judging the religious organizations in terms of sweetness and light.

Culture has perfection that is free from all kinds of stands against all the mischief men who have blind faith in machinery. In his opinion, the pursuit of perfection is the pursuit of sweetness and light. He who works for sweetness works in the end for light also; he who works for light works in the end for sweetness also. Those who work united for sweetness and light, work to make the reason and the will of God to prevail. Culture looks beyond machinery___ social, political and economic, beyond population, wealth and industry, beyond middle class liberalism and avoids all kinds of narrowness and hatred. Culture has one great opinion, the passion for sweetness and light.

Arnold shows pleasure to insist on the arousing of his contemporaries in all spheres of creative activities in art, literature and life. He insists that the light of culture must guide this national re-awakening to sweetness and light. Culture works differently, and it does not work with ready- made judgment and watch words. Its appeal is not confined to any one peculiar class in society. It deals with the best self that has been thought and known in the world current everywhere. Culture implies itself to make all men to live in an atmosphere of sweetness and light, where they may use ideas as it uses them itself freely.

The great men of culture believe in equality and broad mindedness. They are possessed by a passion to spread culture from one end of society to the other. They carry the best knowledge and the best ideas of their times. It is the duty of these men to humanize knowledge, and therefore, it becomes the best knowledge and thought of the ages, and becomes a true source of sweetness and light. The great men of culture broaden the basis of life and intelligence and work powerfully to expand sweetness and light to make reason and the will of God to prevail.

Consequently, a man of culture is like a honey bee. The job of honey bee is to suck the juice from all flowers (sweet or sour) and to make honey. Honey is sweet and liked by all in all forms. Honey has wax that is not useless because the candles are made of it light. Hence, in the end of sweetness is light. In this way, a man of culture seeks knowledge from all departments and shares it to all. He is not narrow-minded because such knowledge brings perfection. So his pursuit of perfection is sweetness and light.

A Critical Appreciation of "The Good-Morrow" Written by John Donne

“The Good-Morrow” is an exquisite piece of metaphysical poetry. Donne wrote it at a comparatively early age and the poem was published in a collection entitled as “Songs and Sonnets”.

The poem is a short lyric of three stanzas, each stanza consisting of seven lines. The rhyme scheme of each of the stanzas is ababccc. The poem opens with a surprise, which has been promoted to dependence in love in the middle part of the poem. In the end of the poem, the love has been given immortality. Arguments have been used to develop the theme. The poem conforms to the tradition of metaphysical poetry in its development of thought. It opens dramatically.

Its sudden conversational opening arrests the attention of the readers. Then follow several questions implying the surprise of the speaker at the discovery that they had already been in love before they became aware of it. The innocence of love at this stage has been suggested by a comparison with the breast fed babies. The unconscious state of the lovers has been suggested by a comparison with the “seven sleepers”. Then the lover assures his beloved saying that all his imagination about love was centered round her.

In the second stanza, the lover very confidently invites his beloved to welcome their love. He compares each of them to two separate worlds and says that they together constitute a single world. In this stanza he generalizes that pure love saves a lover from falling in love with any other person.

In the third stanza, the lover again admits that they are separate individuals but he emphasizes the inseparable union of their souls. The union of the souls, he confidently demands, will continue even after death. Thus, the theme of love of this poem develops logically from surprise to confidence and then to immortality.

The images of the poem are vivid. There are pictures of breast fed babies, snorting seven sleepers and hemispheres. All these images have been used to suggest the unique nature of the love in the poem. The images, no doubt, reveal the poet’s capacity of making scholarly images.

The poem is free from bitterness, grief and cynicism. There is neither disappointment nor disgust. A note of contentment runs through the poem. In the beginning the tone is of surprise, then it shifts to contentment, and finally, to spirituality. Moreover, its theme has been developed through passionate arguments, and here it differs from a dramatic monologue.